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Design, Selection Of Fan, Thermal analysis of 1u Server Cooling


1U box assembly consists of components with high thermal dissipation. Different components which are dissipating heat are PSU(Transformer), Survey card, Processor -Core 2 Duo P8400, GMCH chip set - GM45, ICH chip set - ICH9M and DC/DC Converter. Because of high thermal flux these parts are subjected to, there is good chance of components failing. Cooling is provided by forced convection utilizing 4 fans of suction type.

The main objective of the steady state CFD thermal analysis of 1U box assembly at the given ambient temperature of 400C is to determine the following:

  • To determine the prevailing temperatures on all the components inside the 1U box assembly
  • To assess the cooling air flow distribution inside the module
  • To calculate the temperature distribution on various planes of interest in the module.
  • To see whether the fans are able to bring down the temperature on different components below maximum allowable limit.

A Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis of the 1U Box Assembly using was conducted in steady state condition, to evaluate the airflow and its thermal performance. The analysis was conducted the CFD Electronic cooling package. The solution in terms of the airflow pattern and temperature distribution are evaluated for the given operating conditions. The results in the form of temperature, velocity contours, vectors and path lines in various planes of interest are evaluated and presented. Fan is modelled in icepack using P-Q curve . The Finite Volume Model of the 1U Box domain has 1.1 million Cartesian Hexahedral Elements. Care is taken that mesh is passing through the thickness of all the components modelled in 1U box assembly. Operating temperature of different parts of 1-u server is compared with the given allowable temperatures from the part data sheet. Failure components are focused for cooling , until all the parts are operating safely below their prescribed operating temperature.

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Liquid cooling application on CPU cooling

Computer cooling is required to remove the waste heat produced by computer components, to keep components within permissible operating temperature limits. Components that are susceptible to temporary malfunction or permanent failure if overheated include integrated circuits such as CPUs, chip-set, graphics cards, and hard disk drives. Components are often designed to generate as little heat as possible, and computers and operating systems may be designed to reduce power consumption and consequent heating according to workload, but more heat may still be produced than can be removed without attention to cooling. Use of heat sinks cooled by airflow reduces the temperature rise produced by a given amount of heat. Attention to patterns of airflow can prevent the development of hotspots. Computer fans are very widely used to reduce temperature by actively exhausting hot air. There are also more exotic and extreme techniques, such as liquid cooling.

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